Intellectual property
The categories of intellectual property vary somewhat from country to country, some intellectual property rights are recognised in some countries and not others, though in broad terms there is a high level of harmonisation and standardisation internationally. The term is commonly used to cover laws for copyright, registered trade marks, unregistered trade marks and patents. In some countries use of the term includes reference to laws for trade secrets, confidential information, registered designs, circuit layout rights and plant breeders rights. From a legal perspective intellectual property is in essence data, information and knowledge which under specific statutes or common law is recognised as property. However, exception are confidentiality and moral rights law, as these at law are accorded rights and remedies derived not from notions of property but from concepts in equity law and ethics. The law's highly defined categories for intellectual property facilitate commercial transactions involving data, information and knowledge (eg licensing, sale, franchising, financing, and prosecution of pirates).