Various types of data including text, photos, graphs, sound recordings, films, broadcasts and computer programs for which copyright law grants rights to its creator or owner. There are typically about four elements for copyright to exist in subject matter:

  • an author - the author must be a human being;
  • a work or “other subject matter” – this must be an expression, not just an idea; eg a literary, artistic, dramatic or musical work or other subject matter such as a sound recording or cinematograph film; computer programs are categorised as “literary works”;
  • originality in the work or “other subject matter” - originality is set at a low hurdle; and
  • recording in a material form of the work or “other subject matter” – whether the form is visible or not.